Substation Protection and Control

Power substations contain expensive pieces of equipment. If protection is not installed then you can watch them explode. A piece of protection also has to do with safety of personnel for instance fast trip settings, disabling breaker reclose, arc-flash settings etc.

Data Concentrators

Substation SCADA System – Design Guide

For electrical engineers, designing the Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition system (SCADA) for an electrical substation can be a daunting task, if not confusing with the different ways you can connect various Intelligent Electronic Devices (IED’s) based on protocols each device supports. This article serves to help you understand this system so you can design one as well.

Directional Comparison UnBlocking Scheme

Directional Comparison Unblocking (DCUB) Scheme

The DCUB Scheme, like POTT Scheme, uses two frequencies to maintain system protection. When the system is operating under normal condition, the transceiver emits the “Guard” frequency. When a fault appears in the system, the distance relays shift the carrier to “Trip” frequency. This is where the similarities between POTT and DCUB schemes end.

Theory - Power Systems Engineering - PEguru

Enhance Your Power System Protection With Negative Sequence Relaying

In the realm of protective relaying, overcurrent protection is the simplest and an essential scheme. Phase and residual protection are quite common in the industry. Phase elements should be set carefully so as to afford protection for equipment downstream of it while not limit the load current in anyway. Residual currents can be set more sensitive than phase relays since they do not limit the load current. Between these two, it is easy to forget the negative sequence protection.

Direct Transfer Trip

Direct Transfer Trip Scheme

Direct Transfer Trips (DTT) are initiated from station relays when a serious event occurs in the substation. Some of these events are breaker failure, bus faults, transformer failure, etc. A lockout relay (86 device) is assigned to each event.