## Featured Articles

### Practical Implementation of Transformer Winding Connections – 3 Critical Steps to Consider

To understand how transformer winding connections are made, in this article I will build a three-phase transformer delta-delta (with 180degree phase-shift) using three (3) single-phase transformers.

### Power Substation Design Calculations – A Checklist of 18 Studies for Engineers to Consider

In this article, I will share 18 substation design calculations or studies that will set you up to create a beautiful substation. Here’s the list.

### What Do Symmetrical, Asymmetrical, Momentary, Interrupting, Close & Latch Ratings Mean?

These terms were coined over the years to identify the appropriate short circuit current magnitude that engineers could use to rate the switchgears, switchboards, panelboards, circuit breakers, fuses, etc.

But before I explain each term, let’s get some basics out of the way.

### Cheatsheet for calculating lightning surge arrester ratings

Are you sizing a lightning surge arrester for installation inside a substation? Electrical parameters: MCOV, TOV, and discharge voltage; should be on top of your list – for the correct application. If you are unfamiliar with these parameters, then check out the below infographic and the article, showing how to pick their values.

### Power Cable Neutral and System Grounding

Installing medium voltage power cables underground comes with its own set of challenges. From an engineering standpoint, there are several factors one needs to consider before installing the cable. The most overlooked if not a well-understood factor is the type of power cable that’s required for the application and when to ground the cable’s neutral or tape-shield.

### Power Circuit Breaker – Operation and Control Scheme

Understanding the breaker scheme is important if you plan on designing a substation. Quite often, it is overwhelming to make sense of the entire scheme at a glance. Therefore, the figure below depicting a circuit breaker scheme will be used to simplify and explain various elements of the breaker’s design and its control.

## Major Substation Equipment

Learn the purpose, cost, and lead time to procure for each piece of equipment.

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