Let’s understand the concept of per unit system by solving an example. In the one-line diagram below, the impedance of various components in a power system, typically derived from their nameplates, are presented. The task now is to normalize these values using a common base.

Now that you have carefully examined the system and its parameters, the equivalent impedance diagram for the above system would look something like the following.

Resistive impedance for most components have been ignored. Rotating machines have been replaced with a voltage source behind their internal reactance. Capacitive effects between lines and to ground are ignored as well.

To obtain the new normalized per unit impedances, first we need to figure out the base values (Sbase, Vbase, Zbase) in the power system. Following steps will lead you through the process.

### Step 1: Assume a system base

Assume a system wide S_{base} of 100MVA. This is a random assumption and chosen to make calculations easy when calculating the per unit impedances.

So, S_{base} = 100MVA

### Step 2: Identify the voltage base

Voltage base in the system is determined by the transformer. For example, with a 22/220kV voltage rating of T1 transformer, the V_{base} on the primary side of T1 is 22kV while the secondary side is 220kV. It does not matter what the voltage rating of the other components are that are encompassed by the V_{base} zone.

See figure below for the voltage bases in the system.

### Step 3: Calculate the base impedance

The base impedance is calculated using the following formula:

Z_{base}=\frac{{kV_{base}}^2}{S_{base MVA}} Ohms…..(1)

For T-Line 1: Z_{base}=\frac{(220)^2}{100}= 484 Ohms

For T-Line 2: Z_{base}=\frac{(110)^2}{100}= 121 Ohms

For 3-phase load: Z_{base}=\frac{(11)^2}{100}= 1.21 Ohms

### Step 4: Calculate the per unit impedance

The per unit impedance is calculated using the following formulas:

Z_{p.u.}=\frac{Z_{actual}}{Z_{base}} …..(2)

Z_{p.u._{new}}=Z_{p.u._{old}}(\frac{S_{base_{new}}}{S_{base_{old}}})(\frac{V_{base_{old}}}{V_{base_{new}}})^2 …..(3)

The voltage ratio in equation (3) is not equivalent to the transformers voltage ratio. It is the ratio of the transformer’s voltage rating on the primary or secondary side to the system nominal voltage on the same side.

For T-line 1 using equation (2): X_{l1_{p.u.}}=\frac{48.4}{484}= 0.1 pu

For T-line 2 using equation (2): X_{l2_{p.u.}}=\frac{65.43}{121}= 0.5 pu

For 3-Phase load:

Power Factor: \cos^{-1}(0.6)=\angle{53.13}

Thus, S_{3\phi}(load)=57\angle{53.13}

Z_{act}=\frac{(V_{rated})^2}{\overline{S}^*}= \frac{10.45^2}{57\angle{-53.13}}= 1.1495+j1.53267 Ohms

Per unit impedance of 3-phase load using equation (2)= \frac{1.1495+j1.5326}{1.21} = 0.95+j1.2667 pu

For generator, the new per unit reactance using equation (3)

X_{sg}= 0.18(\frac{100}{90})(\frac{22}{22})^2= 0.2 pu

For transformer T1: X_{t1}= 0.1(\frac{100}{50})(\frac{22}{22})^2 = 0.2 pu

For transformer T2: X_{t2}= 0.06(\frac{100}{40})(\frac{220}{220})^2 = 0.15 pu

For transformer T3: X_{t3}= 0.064(\frac{100}{40})(\frac{22}{22})^2 = 0.16 pu

For transformer T4: X_{t4}= 0.08(\frac{100}{40})(\frac{110}{110})^2 = 0.2 pu

For Motor, X_{sm}= 0.185(\frac{100}{66.5})(\frac{10.45}{11})^2 = 0.25 pu

### Per Unit System Ebook

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To view full load amps due to motor load and inductive load at Bus 2, see this post.

### Summary

- Assume a Sbase for the entire system.
- The Vbase is defined by the transformer and any off-nominal tap setting it may have.
- Zbase is derived from the Sbase and Vbase.
- The new per unit impedance is obtained by converting the old per unit impedance on old base values to new ones. See equations (2) and (3).

kamIt is really well explained but could you pls show me how to calculate voltage at but 3 and current in both lines, will be very greatful , thanks a lot

manishwhat if transformers are connected in star and delta connection?

T.subhashNo problem decause it is balanced (per unit is only for balanced forms only)

In case of unbalanced then there is a requirement of taking star and delta into consideration

Anayati am very new to Power side , so i really dont know abt all these concepts , what we only have T1 and T2 , and all the rating given are three phase line to line ? how we ll solve it then?

richavery nicely explained….to the point and complete..thanks a lot 🙂

SanketVERY NICELY EXPLAINED THANK-YOU ………

I WILL VISIT WEBSITE AGAIN FOR FURTHER REFERENCES.

BABULS RAJThank u so much…..after searching for a proper explanation for the same in so many sites, i got it finally from your site. Clear explanation with proper diagrams with multi colour…….very nice …..

Renjith MCommendable work. But there is a small error. The per-unit system is the ratio of two quantities of the same units. Therefore it is unitless. Well that is what I know. So accordingly we specify the per-unit quatities as just ‘P.U’. So you need to remove the ‘Ohms’ from the text and insert ‘p.u’

Aleen MohammedNice catch. Fixed it. Thanks.

AlfredoIt was very useful, but it is short because is necessary to get the complete solution, any way I liked.

Abdul RauffVery Good Info About PSA.Thanks Alot

HilaryProtection engieering, i have been give the reactance as Xd’ to calculate faults on a system do i convert to Xd” how do i do this