Arc Flash Hazard Study – The Basics

Arc flash hazard is a huge concern in areas where you are operating medium voltage (1kV – 34kV) and low voltage (less than 1kV) equipment. Mostly because, when you inadvertently initiate a fault, an arc flash ensuing it releases enormous amount of heat energy. The composition of this arc includes molten bits of copper or aluminium busbar or cable.

Arc flash vs the HRC4 - 40Cal suit

Basics of Pilot Relaying & Application Considerations For Transmission Line Protection

Pilot relaying refers to the communication network implemented on the high voltage transmission line (T-line) to transmit “trip or don’t trip” signal to and fro between two or more substations. The intent here is to trip the circuit breakers as fast as possible when a fault strikes the T-line, therefore, protecting it.

Wave Trap with Corona Fittings

Directional Comparison Blocking Scheme

The Directional Comparison Blocking (DCB) scheme is the most popular pilot relaying scheme, implemented to protect high voltage power lines. This scheme is more dependable than a permissive transfer trip scheme because it trips the breaker even when there is no carrier signal from the remote end pilot relay. Let’s dive into details.

Fault Zones

Per Unit System – An Introduction

Fundamental to any power system analysis is the know-how of per unit systems. This article, part of a series of articles, will explain step by step how to calculate these parameters for any component anywhere in the power system. Let’s begin with the purpose.

Per unit system
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