The DCUB Scheme, like POTT Scheme, uses two frequencies to maintain system protection. When the system is operating under normal condition, the transceiver emits the “Guard” frequency. When a fault appears in the system, the distance relays shift the carrier to “Trip” frequency. This is where the similarities between POTT and DCUB schemes end.
Unlike POTT, the DCUB scheme permits the breakers to trip when the guard signal from the remote end relay is lost. Ofcouse, there are certain conditions that need to be met before this happens. Lets understand them using the figure below.
Trip Scenario No. 1: Fault in the zone of protection (F1)
- Relays at CB1 and CB2 will see a loss of guard frequency and obtain the permissive “trip” frequency
- Relays see zone 2 distance elements pick-up
- Reverse looking zone 4 elements do not pick-up (if configured)
Both relays see a fault using their forward looking zone 2 elements, transmit the permissive trip signal to each other and ultimately trip their associated breakers.
Trip Scenario No. 2: Fault outside the zone of protection (F2)
- Relay at CB1 sees the fault using zone 2 elements
- Relay at CB1 shifts carrier from Guard to Trip frequency, providing the permissive trip signal to relay at CB2
- Relay at CB2 does not see a fault in it’s zone
- Relay at CB2 maintains guard frequency towards CB2
CB1 relay sees the fault using its zone 2 element, however, CB2 relay does not. A lack of trip signal from the CB2 relay prevents the CB1 relay from tripping. Thus, both relays are restrained from tripping.
Trip Scenario No. 3: Fault in the zone of protection (F1) but the guard/trip signal is shorted out by the fault
- Both relays see a loss of guard
- Associated permissive trip signal is not available either
- Fault is picked up by the zone 2 elements of both relays
- Reverse looking zones (if configured) do not pick up fault
Both relays initiate a timer. After the predetermined time elapses, the relays are permitted to trip the breaker provided their zone 2 elements still see the fault.
It is this last extra bit that makes this scheme viable on a Power Line Carrier set-up.
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